[CF-metadata] New standard names for OMIP: physics

alison.pamment at stfc.ac.uk alison.pamment at stfc.ac.uk
Thu Oct 12 05:54:16 MDT 2017


Dear Jonathan, Stephen and Paul,

Paul has reminded me that these names are still awaiting completion. Thanks to Jonathan and Stephen for commenting on the names during the earlier discussion. I think these names (35 in total) are all very close to agreement and if possible I'd like to add them at the next standard name table update. Please could you have a look through the details below (I'm afraid there are a lot of them!) and let me know what you think. In particular, please can you check that you are happy with the definitions - I still have one or two questions about these - and also my suggestion to add the word 'eddy' in names 3q - 3v in the list below. (The numbering of the proposals follows on from my last email summarizing all these names).

1c. sea_water_salinity_at_sea_floor (1 e-3)

Jonathan has pointed out that we already use sea_floor as a named surface and that this quantity is indeed intended to represent as closely as possible the salinity at the interface between the water and the sea bed. Therefore, I think the name is fine as it is. The complete definition, including that of sea_water_salinity would then be:
'The salinity at the sea floor is that adjacent to the ocean bottom, which would be the deepest grid cell in an ocean model. Sea water salinity is the salt content of sea water, often on the Practical Salinity Scale of 1978. However, the unqualified term 'salinity' is generic and does not necessarily imply any particular method of calculation. The units of salinity are dimensionless and the units attribute should normally be given as 1e-3 or 0.001 i.e. parts per thousand. There are standard names for the more precisely defined salinity quantities sea_water_knudsen_salinity, S_K (used for salinity observations between 1901 and 1966), sea_water_cox_salinity, S_C (used for salinity observations between 1967 and 1977), sea_water_practical_salinity, S_P (used for salinity observations from 1978 to the present day), sea_water_absolute_salinity, S_A, sea_water_preformed_salinity, S_*, and sea_water_reference_salinity. Practical Salinity is reported on the Practical Salinity Scale of 1978 (PSS-78), and is usually based on the electrical conductivity of sea water in observations since the 1960s. Conversion of data between the observed scales follows S_P = (S_K - 0.03) * (1.80655 / 1.805) and S_P = S_C, however the accuracy of the latter is dependent on whether chlorinity or conductivity was used to determine the S_C value, with this inconsistency driving the development of PSS-78. The more precise standard names should be used where appropriate for both modelled and observed salinities. In particular, the use of sea_water_salinity to describe salinity observations made from 1978 onwards is now deprecated in favor of the term sea_water_practical_salinity which is the salinity quantity stored by national data centers for post-1978 observations. The only exception to this is where the observed salinities are definitely known not to be recorded on the Practical Salinity Scale. Practical salinity units are dimensionless. The unit "parts per thousand" was used for sea_water_knudsen_salinity and sea_water_cox_salinity.'

Okay?

2. Integral quantities

Stephen has explained that it is necessary to use canonical units of kg C m-2, rather than kg K m-2, for the density integrals for the following reasons:
> 1/ No ocean model uses K for its temperature field.  2/ For an ocean column that has changing thickness, it is not possible to convert heat content using K to
> that using C using offline time mean quantities.  So throughout the ocean request (more on this below), we are requesting heat content and integrated 
> temperature quantities to be based on degrees C.
Jonathan has also supported this view.

The names were originally proposed as:
a. integral_wrt_depth_of_product_of_sea_water_density_and_potential_temperature (kg C m-2)
b. integral_wrt_depth_of_product_of_sea_water_density_and_conservative_temperature (kg C m-2)
c. integral_wrt_depth_of_product_of_sea_water_density_and_salinity (1e-3 kg m-2)

I had suggested moving 'wrt_depth' to the end of the names, e.g. integral_of_product_of_sea_water_density_and_potential_temperature_wrt_depth but Jonathan feels that this makes the names less readable:
> Despite the guidelines, we have two existing standard names that start integral_wrt_depth_of. I think that if X is a very long phrase, like 
> product_of_sea_water_density_and_potential_temperature, integral_wrt_depth_of_X is easier to understand than integral_of_X_wrt_depth. So I'd suggest 
> that these are legitimate variants.
I do agree that the names are clearer written as integral_wrt_depth_of_X so I'm happy to adopt that for the OMIP names. We have a number of existing names (nineteen) that are phrased the other way round. I think it's best if we can stick to one form of wording where possible, as this does make the standard_names more 'standard'! Therefore, I suggest creating aliases for the existing names to make them more consistent with the new OMIP names and also updating the guidelines document to reflect this.

Stephen has indicated that it is important to keep the sentence about Boussinesq models in the definitions because it is generally applicable and not specific to CMIP6.

Taking all these points together, the names in full would then be:
a. integral_wrt_depth_of_product_of_sea_water_density_and_potential_temperature (kg C m-2)
'The phrase "integral_wrt_X_of_Y" means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase "wrt" means "with respect to". The phrase "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. Depth is the vertical distance below the surface. Sea water density is the in-situ density (not the potential density). For Boussinesq models, density is the constant Boussinesq reference density, a quantity which has the standard name reference_sea_water_density_for_boussinesq_approximation. Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure.'

b. integral_wrt_depth_of_product_of_sea_water_density_and_conservative_temperature (kg C m-2)
'The phrase "integral_wrt_X_of_Y" means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase "wrt" means "with respect to". Depth is the vertical distance below the surface. The phrase "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. Sea water density is the in-situ density (not the potential density). For Boussinesq models, density is the constant Boussinesq reference density, a quantity which has the standard name reference_sea_water_density_for_boussinesq_approximation. Conservative Temperature is defined as part of the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) which was adopted in 2010 by the International Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Conservative Temperature is specific potential enthalpy (which has the standard name sea_water_specific_potential_enthalpy) divided by a fixed value of the specific heat capacity of sea water, namely cp_0 = 3991.86795711963 J kg-1 K-1. Conservative Temperature is a more accurate measure of the "heat content" of sea water, by a factor of one hundred, than is potential temperature. Because of this, it can be regarded as being proportional to the heat content of sea water per unit mass. Reference: www.teos-10.org; McDougall, 2003 doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<0945:PEACOV>2.0.CO;2.'

c. integral_wrt_depth_of_product_of_sea_water_density_and_salinity (1e-3 kg m-2)
'The phrase "integral_wrt_X_of_Y" means int Y dX. The data variable should have an axis for X specifying the limits of the integral as bounds. The phrase "wrt" means "with respect to". The phrase "product_of_X_and_Y" means X*Y. Depth is the vertical distance below the surface. Sea water density is the in-situ density (not the potential density). For Boussinesq models, density is the constant Boussinesq reference density, a quantity which has the standard name reference_sea_water_density_for_boussinesq_approximation. Sea water salinity is the salt content of sea water, often on the Practical Salinity Scale of 1978. However, the unqualified term 'salinity' is generic and does not necessarily imply any particular method of calculation. The units of salinity are dimensionless and the units attribute should normally be given as 1e-3 or 0.001 i.e. parts per thousand. There are standard names for the more precisely defined salinity quantities sea_water_knudsen_salinity, S_K (used for salinity observations between 1901 and 1966), sea_water_cox_salinity, S_C (used for salinity observations between 1967 and 1977), sea_water_practical_salinity, S_P (used for salinity observations from 1978 to the present day), sea_water_absolute_salinity, S_A, sea_water_preformed_salinity, S_*, and sea_water_reference_salinity. Practical Salinity is reported on the Practical Salinity Scale of 1978 (PSS-78), and is usually based on the electrical conductivity of sea water in observations since the 1960s. Conversion of data between the observed scales follows S_P = (S_K - 0.03) * (1.80655 / 1.805) and S_P = S_C, however the accuracy of the latter is dependent on whether chlorinity or conductivity was used to determine the S_C value, with this inconsistency driving the development of PSS-78. The more precise standard names should be used where appropriate for both modelled and observed salinities. In particular, the use of sea_water_salinity to describe salinity observations made from 1978 onwards is now deprecated in favor of the term sea_water_practical_salinity which is the salinity quantity stored by national data centers for post-1978 observations. The only exception to this is where the observed salinities are definitely known not to be recorded on the Practical Salinity Scale. Practical salinity units are dimensionless. The unit "parts per thousand" was used for sea_water_knudsen_salinity and sea_water_cox_salinity.'

Are these all okay? If so, they can be accepted for inclusion in the standard name table.

The aliases that would result from making existing names follow the same pattern are as follows:
integral_of_air_temperature_deficit_wrt_time -> integral_wrt_time_of_air_temperature_deficit
integral_of_air_temperature_excess_wrt_time -> integral_wrt_time_of_air_temperature_excess
integral_of_product_of_eastward_wind_and_specific_humidity_wrt_height -> integral_wrt_height_of_product_of_eastward_wind_and_specific_humidity
integral_of_product_of_northward_wind_and_specific_humidity_wrt_height -> integral_wrt_height_of_product_of_northward_wind_and_specific_humidity
integral_of_sea_ice_temperature_wrt_depth_expressed_as_heat_content -> integral_wrt_depth_of_sea_ice_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content
integral_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_wrt_depth_expressed_as_heat_content -> integral_wrt_depth_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content
integral_of_sea_water_practical_salinity_wrt_depth -> integral_wrt_depth_of_sea_water_practical_salinity
integral_of_sea_water_temperature_wrt_depth_in_ocean_layer -> integral_wrt_depth_of_sea_water_temperature_in_ocean_layer
integral_of_surface_downward_eastward_stress_wrt_time -> integral_wrt_time_of_surface_downward_eastward_stress
integral_of_surface_downward_northward_stress_wrt_time -> integral_wrt_time_of_surface_downward_northward_stress
integral_of_surface_downward_latent_heat_flux_wrt_time -> integral_wrt_time_of_surface_downward_latent_heat_flux
integral_of_surface_downward_sensible_heat_flux_wrt_time -> integral_wrt_time_of_surface_downward_sensible_heat_flux
integral_of_surface_downwelling_longwave_flux_in_air_wrt_time -> integral_wrt_time_of_surface_downwelling_longwave_flux_in_air
integral_of_surface_downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air_wrt_time -> integral_wrt_time_of_surface_downwelling_shortwave_flux_in_air
integral_of_surface_net_downward_longwave_flux_wrt_time -> integral_wrt_time_of_surface_net_downward_longwave_flux
integral_of_surface_net_downward_shortwave_flux_wrt_time -> integral_wrt_time_of_surface_net_downward_shortwave_flux
integral_of_toa_net_downward_shortwave_flux_wrt_time -> integral_wrt_time_of_toa_net_downward_shortwave_flux
integral_of_toa_outgoing_longwave_flux_wrt_time -> integral_wrt_time_of_toa_outgoing_longwave_flux
ocean_integral_of_sea_water_temperature_wrt_depth -> ocean_integral_wrt_depth_of_sea_water_temperature

I will create these aliases at the next update of the standard name table unless there are any objections in the meantime.

3. Tendencies

There are 21 proposed tendency names which follow three patterns as follows:
tendency_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content[_due_to_PROCESS] (W m-2)
tendency_of_sea_water_conservative_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content[_due_to_PROCESS] (W m-2)
tendency_of_sea_water_salinity_expressed_as_salt_content[_due_to_PROCESS] (kg m-2 s-1)
where PROCESS is one of: advection; parameterized_eddy_advection; parameterized_mesoscale_advection; parameterized_submesoscale_advection; parameterized_mesoscale_diffusion;  parameterized_dianeutral_mixing.

There is one further tendency name:
tendency_of_ocean_eddy_kinetic_energy_content_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection

We have discussed the heat content names and both Stephen and Jonathan have expressed the view that we need separate names for the conservative and potential temperature quantities.

The three 'total' tendency names 3a - 3c are as follows:

3a. tendency_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content (W m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure.'

3b. tendency_of_sea_water_conservative_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content (W m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Conservative Temperature is defined as part of the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) which was adopted in 2010 by the International Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Conservative Temperature is specific potential enthalpy (which has the standard name sea_water_specific_potential_enthalpy) divided by a fixed value of the specific heat capacity of sea water, namely cp_0 = 3991.86795711963 J kg-1 K-1. Conservative Temperature is a more accurate measure of the "heat content" of sea water, by a factor of one hundred, than is potential temperature. Because of this, it can be regarded as being proportional to the heat content of sea water per unit mass. Reference: www.teos-10.org; McDougall, 2003 doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<0945:PEACOV>2.0.CO;2.'

We have an existing name, integral_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_wrt_depth_expressed_as_heat_content, whose definition says ' "expressed_as_heat_content" means that this quantity is calculated as the (assumed constant) specific heat capacity times density of sea water multiplied by the integral, over the specified layer of the ocean, of the sea water potential temperature wrt depth.' I assume we need a similar statement for the proposed heat_content names, perhaps something like: ' "expressed_as_heat_content" means that this quantity is calculated as the specific heat capacity times density of sea water multiplied by the [potential|conservative] temperature of the sea water in the grid cell.' If we can agree the wording I can add a sentence to  the definitions of all the heat content names.

3c. tendency_of_sea_water_salinity_expressed_as_salt_content (W m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time.'

Are these three okay (with the addition of the 'heat_content' definition)? 

Regarding the other tendency names, I had some questions regarding the process names and definitions. Thank you to Stephen and Jonathan for providing more information about these. I had argued that we didn't need to use the word 'parameterized' but Stephen argued strongly that we should keep it in because, in higher resolution models, some of the same processes might be fully resolved (so they would then not be parameterized) and it is important that we have a way of distinguishing between resolved and parameterized model diagnostics for model comparison purposes. Jonathan has also supported this view, and I am fine with leaving 'parameterized'  in if it is needed.

The discussion has concluded that 'bolus_advection'  (as used in existing names) and 'parameterized_eddy_advection' in the current proposals are intended to represent the same process. We have agreed that parameterized_eddy_advection is now the widely used term in ocean modelling and we should create aliases for the older bolus names. This would result in the following aliases being created for existing names:
northward_ocean_freshwater_transport_due_to_bolus_advection -> northward_ocean_freshwater_transport_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection
northward_ocean_heat_transport_due_to_bolus_advection -> northward_ocean_heat_transport_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection
northward_ocean_salt_transport_due_to_bolus_advection -> northward_ocean_salt_transport_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection
ocean_heat_x_transport_due_to_bolus_advection -> ocean_heat_x_transport_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection
ocean_heat_y_transport_due_to_bolus_advection -> ocean_heat_y_transport_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection
ocean_mass_x_transport_due_to_advection_and_bolus_advection -> ocean_mass_x_transport_due_to_advection_and_parameterized_eddy_advection
ocean_mass_y_transport_due_to_advection_and_bolus_advection -> ocean_mass_y_transport_due_to_advection_and_parameterized_eddy_advection
ocean_meridional_overturning_mass_streamfunction_due_to_bolus_advection -> ocean_meridional_overturning_mass_streamfunction_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection
ocean_y_overturning_mass_streamfunction_due_to_bolus_advection -> ocean_y_overturning_mass_streamfunction_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection
tendency_of_sea_water_salinity_due_to_bolus_advection -> tendency_of_sea_water_salinity_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection
tendency_of_sea_water_temperature_due_to_bolus_advection -> tendency_of_sea_water_temperature_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection

For existing names that follow a slightly different pattern, but mention 'bolus', Stephen and Jonathan have suggested the following:
bolus_eastward_sea_water_velocity:m s-1  -> sea_water_eastward_velocity_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddies
bolus_northward_sea_water_velocity:m s-1  -> sea_water_northward_velocity_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddies
bolus_sea_water_x_velocity:m s-1  -> sea_water_x_velocity_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddies
bolus_sea_water_y_velocity:m s-1  -> sea_water_y_velocity_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddies
bolus_upward_sea_water_velocity:m s-1 -> sea_water_upward_velocity_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddies
ocean_tracer_bolus_biharmonic_diffusivity:m4 s-1  -> ocean_tracer_biharmonic_diffusivity_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_advection 
ocean_tracer_bolus_laplacian_diffusivity:m2 s-1  ->  ocean_tracer_diffusivity_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_advection

For the ocean_tracer names (last two in preceding list) I think the aliases should in fact be 
ocean_tracer_bolus_biharmonic_diffusivity:m4 s-1  -> ocean_tracer_biharmonic_diffusivity_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection 
ocean_tracer_bolus_laplacian_diffusivity:m2 s-1  ->  ocean_tracer_diffusivity_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection
as we have agreed that parameterized_mesoscale_advection should really be parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection (see below).

There is one further existing name: tendency_of_ocean_eddy_kinetic_energy_content_due_to_bolus_transport. I assume that it would make sense to also change this to tendency_of_ocean_eddy_kinetic_energy_content_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection for consistency with the others.

I'll add all these aliases at the next standard name table update unless anyone objects.

For consistency with the parameterized_eddy_advection names, we have also agreed to use the terms parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection and parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection in the current proposals. The proposed names corresponding to all three processes are listed below (3d - 3m). Please note the addition of a sentence in the definitions to explain the relationship between these processes. I have described the mesoscale and submesoscale processes as contributions to the total eddy advection. If these are the only two contributions would it be even better to say that eddy advection is the sum of mesoscale and submesoscale processes? Or are there other contributions that are not named separately? 

I found a reference to a paper by James McWilliams which defines the spatial scales which are generally regarded as 'mesoscale' and 'submesoscale' in ocean models, so I've added that information into the definitions. I've also added in our usual definitions for quantities such as potential and conservative temperature.

Please have a look through all these and let me know if you are happy.
 
3d. tendency_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection (W m-2)
'The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized eddy advection can be represented on various spatial scales and there are standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection and parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which both contribute to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

3e. tendency_of_sea_water_conservative_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection (W m-2)
'The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. Conservative Temperature is defined as part of the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) which was adopted in 2010 by the International Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Conservative Temperature is specific potential enthalpy (which has the standard name sea_water_specific_potential_enthalpy) divided by a fixed value of the specific heat capacity of sea water, namely cp_0 = 3991.86795711963 J kg-1 K-1. Conservative Temperature is a more accurate measure of the "heat content" of sea water, by a factor of one hundred, than is potential temperature. Because of this, it can be regarded as being proportional to the heat content of sea water per unit mass. Reference: www.teos-10.org; McDougall, 2003 doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<0945:PEACOV>2.0.CO;2. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized eddy advection can be represented on various spatial scales and there are standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection and parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which both contribute to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

3f. tendency_of_sea_water_salinity_expressed_as_salt_content_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection (kg m-2 s-1)
'The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized eddy advection can be represented on various spatial scales and there are standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection and parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which both contribute to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

3g. tendency_of_ocean_eddy_kinetic_energy_content_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection (W m-2)
'The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The "ocean content" of a quantity refers to the vertical integral from the surface to the bottom of the ocean. The specification of a physical process by the phrase "due_to_" process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized eddy advection can be represented on various spatial scales and there are standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection and parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which both contribute to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

3h. tendency_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection (W m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of many tens of kilometres and an evolutionary time of weeks. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection is represented in ocean models using schemes such as the Gent-McWilliams scheme. There are also standard names for parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

3i. tendency_of_sea_water_conservative_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection (W m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Conservative Temperature is defined as part of the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) which was adopted in 2010 by the International Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Conservative Temperature is specific potential enthalpy (which has the standard name sea_water_specific_potential_enthalpy) divided by a fixed value of the specific heat capacity of sea water, namely cp_0 = 3991.86795711963 J kg-1 K-1. Conservative Temperature is a more accurate measure of the "heat content" of sea water, by a factor of one hundred, than is potential temperature. Because of this, it can be regarded as being proportional to the heat content of sea water per unit mass. Reference: www.teos-10.org; McDougall, 2003 doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<0945:PEACOV>2.0.CO;2. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of many tens of kilometres and an evolutionary time of weeks. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection is represented in ocean models using schemes such as the Gent-McWilliams scheme. There are also standard names for parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

3j. tendency_of_sea_water_salinity_expressed_as_salt_content_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection (kg m-2 s-1)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of many tens of kilometres and an evolutionary time of weeks. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection is represented in ocean models using schemes such as the Gent-McWilliams scheme. There are also standard names for parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

3k. tendency_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection (W m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized submesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of the order of 1 km horizontally. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. There are also standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

3l. tendency_of_sea_water_conservative_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection (W m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Conservative Temperature is defined as part of the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) which was adopted in 2010 by the International Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Conservative Temperature is specific potential enthalpy (which has the standard name sea_water_specific_potential_enthalpy) divided by a fixed value of the specific heat capacity of sea water, namely cp_0 = 3991.86795711963 J kg-1 K-1. Conservative Temperature is a more accurate measure of the "heat content" of sea water, by a factor of one hundred, than is potential temperature. Because of this, it can be regarded as being proportional to the heat content of sea water per unit mass. Reference: www.teos-10.org; McDougall, 2003 doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<0945:PEACOV>2.0.CO;2. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized submesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of the order of 1 km horizontally. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. There are also standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

3m. tendency_of_sea_water_salinity_expressed_as_salt_content_due_to_parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection (kg m-2 s-1)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized submesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of the order of 1 km horizontally. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. There are also standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

Are these okay? If so, I think they can be accepted for inclusion in the standard name table.

The remaining tendency names 3n - 3v are as follows:

3n. tendency_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_advection (W m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase.'

3o. tendency_of_sea_water_conservative_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_advection (W m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Conservative Temperature is defined as part of the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) which was adopted in 2010 by the International Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Conservative Temperature is specific potential enthalpy (which has the standard name sea_water_specific_potential_enthalpy) divided by a fixed value of the specific heat capacity of sea water, namely cp_0 = 3991.86795711963 J kg-1 K-1. Conservative Temperature is a more accurate measure of the "heat content" of sea water, by a factor of one hundred, than is potential temperature. Because of this, it can be regarded as being proportional to the heat content of sea water per unit mass. Reference: www.teos-10.org; McDougall, 2003 doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<0945:PEACOV>2.0.CO;2. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase.'

3p. tendency_of_sea_water_salinity_expressed_as_salt_content_due_to_advection (kg m-2 s-1)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase.'

Are these three advection names okay? If so, they can be accepted for publication in the standard name table.
 
For the parameterized_mesoscale_diffusion proposals, the definitions that were originally provided refer to 'parameterized mesoscale eddy diffusive processes (e.g., neutral diffusion in the interior and horizontal diffusion in the surface boundary layer)'. I suggest that the names should then also refer to 'parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_diffusion'  so as to follow a similar pattern to the eddy advection names. Do the same spatial and temporal scales apply to mesoscale_eddy_diffusion as to mesoscale eddy advection, i.e. tens of kilometres and weeks? If so, it would be useful to add this into these definitions too.

3q. tendency_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_diffusion (W m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized mesoscale eddy diffusive processes include diffusion along neutral density surfaces in the interior of the ocean and horizontal diffusion in the surface boundary layer.'

3r. tendency_of_sea_water_conservative_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_diffusion (W m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Conservative Temperature is defined as part of the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) which was adopted in 2010 by the International Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Conservative Temperature is specific potential enthalpy (which has the standard name sea_water_specific_potential_enthalpy) divided by a fixed value of the specific heat capacity of sea water, namely cp_0 = 3991.86795711963 J kg-1 K-1. Conservative Temperature is a more accurate measure of the "heat content" of sea water, by a factor of one hundred, than is potential temperature. Because of this, it can be regarded as being proportional to the heat content of sea water per unit mass. Reference: www.teos-10.org; McDougall, 2003 doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<0945:PEACOV>2.0.CO;2. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized mesoscale eddy diffusive processes include diffusion along neutral density surfaces in the interior of the ocean and horizontal diffusion in the surface boundary layer.'

3s. tendency_of_sea_water_salinity_expressed_as_salt_content_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_diffusion (kg m-2 s-1)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized mesoscale eddy diffusive processes include diffusion along neutral density surfaces in the interior of the ocean and horizontal diffusion in the surface boundary layer.'

Are these okay?

For the parameterized_dianeutral_mixing proposals, the definitions that were originally provided refer to 'parameterized dianeutral eddy advective processes'. I suggest that the names should then also refer to 'parameterized_eddy_dianeutral_mixing'  so as to follow a similar pattern to the eddy advection names.

3t. tendency_of_sea_water_potential_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_parameterized_eddy_dianeutral_mixing (W m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Potential temperature is the temperature a parcel of air or sea water would have if moved adiabatically to sea level pressure. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Eddy dianeutral mixing" means dianeutral mixing, i.e. mixing across surfaces of neutral density, caused by the motion of eddies.'

3u. tendency_of_sea_water_conservative_temperature_expressed_as_heat_content_due_to_parameterized_eddy_dianeutral_mixing (W m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. Conservative Temperature is defined as part of the Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) which was adopted in 2010 by the International Oceanographic Commission (IOC). Conservative Temperature is specific potential enthalpy (which has the standard name sea_water_specific_potential_enthalpy) divided by a fixed value of the specific heat capacity of sea water, namely cp_0 = 3991.86795711963 J kg-1 K-1. Conservative Temperature is a more accurate measure of the "heat content" of sea water, by a factor of one hundred, than is potential temperature. Because of this, it can be regarded as being proportional to the heat content of sea water per unit mass. Reference: www.teos-10.org; McDougall, 2003 doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2003)033<0945:PEACOV>2.0.CO;2. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Eddy dianeutral mixing" means dianeutral mixing, i.e. mixing across surfaces of neutral density, caused by the motion of eddies.'

3v. tendency_of_sea_water_salinity_expressed_as_salt_content_due_to_parameterized_dianeutral_mixing (kg m-2)
' "Content" indicates a quantity per unit area. The phrase "tendency_of_X" means derivative of X with respect to time. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. "Eddy dianeutral mixing" means dianeutral mixing, i.e. mixing across surfaces of neutral density, caused by the motion of eddies.'

4. Overturning and transport names

There are seven proposals for overturning and transport names. All refer to processes already discussed in relation to the tendency names, so I've updated the names and definitions accordingly.

4a. northward_ocean_heat_transport_due_to_parameterized_eddy_advection (W)
'"Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward).  The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized eddy advection can be represented on various spatial scales and there are standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection and parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which both contribute to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

4b. ocean_meridional_overturning_mass_streamfunction_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection (kg s-1)
'The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of many tens of kilometres and an evolutionary time of weeks. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection is represented in ocean models using schemes such as the Gent-McWilliams scheme. There are also standard names for parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

4c. ocean_y_overturning_mass_streamfunction_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection (kg s-1)
' "y" indicates a vector component along the grid y-axis, positive with increasing y. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of many tens of kilometres and an evolutionary time of weeks. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection is represented in ocean models using schemes such as the Gent-McWilliams scheme. There are also standard names for parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

4d. northward_ocean_heat_transport_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection (W)
' "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of many tens of kilometres and an evolutionary time of weeks. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection is represented in ocean models using schemes such as the Gent-McWilliams scheme. There are also standard names for parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

4e. ocean_meridional_overturning_mass_streamfunction_due_to_parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection (kg s-1)
'The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized submesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of the order of 1 km horizontally. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. There are also standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

4f. ocean_y_overturning_mass_streamfunction_due_to_parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection (kg s-1)
' "y" indicates a vector component along the grid y-axis, positive with increasing y. The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized submesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of the order of 1 km horizontally. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. There are also standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

4g. northward_ocean_heat_transport_due_to_parameterized_submesoscale_advection (W)
' "Northward" indicates a vector component which is positive when directed northward (negative southward). The specification of a physical process by the phrase due_to_process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized submesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of the order of 1 km horizontally. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. There are also standard names for parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

Are these okay? If so, they can be accepted for publication in the standard name table.

5. The last name in this set of proposals is
ocean_tracer_diffusivity_due_to_parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection (m2 s-1)
'Diffusivity is also sometimes known as the coefficient of diffusion. Diffusion occurs as a result of a gradient in the spatial distribution of mass concentration, temperature or momentum. The diffusivity may be very different in the vertical and horizontal directions. The specification of a physical process by the phrase "due_to_" process means that the quantity named is a single term in a sum of terms which together compose the general quantity named by omitting the phrase. Parameterized eddy advection in an ocean model means the part due to a scheme representing parameterized eddy-induced advective effects not included in the resolved model velocity field. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection occurs on a spatial scale of many tens of kilometres and an evolutionary time of weeks. Reference: James C. McWilliams 2016, Submesoscale currents in the ocean, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, volume 472, issue 2189. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2016.0117. Parameterized mesoscale eddy advection is represented in ocean models using schemes such as the Gent-McWilliams scheme. There are also standard names for parameterized_submesoscale_eddy_advection which, along with parameterized_mesoscale_eddy_advection, contributes to the total parameterized eddy advection.'

Is this okay?

Best wishes,
Alison

------
Alison Pamment                                                       Tel: +44 1235 778065
Centre for Environmental Data Analysis         Email: alison.pamment at stfc.ac.uk
STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory     
R25, 2.22
Harwell Campus, Didcot, OX11 0QX, U.K.



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